Medical Professionals

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Proper choline consumption is necessary in order to achieve optimal public health. Due to it’s recent addition as an essential nutrient in 1998 many health professionals are either not aware of it’s importance resulting in less patients being advised to increase choline intake through diet and/or supplements by their physicians.

The FAQ tab above will bring you to answers by health professionals. Additionally we have compiled research published in medical journals and websites by public and private organizations below. These are great resources for those in the medical field as well as interested consumers and health advocates.

Choline: An Essential Nutrient for Public Health

Abstract: Choline was officially recognized as an essential nutrient by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1998. Because of its wide-ranging roles in human metabolism, from cell structure to neurotransmitter synthesis, choline-deficiency is now thought to have an impact on diseases such as liver disease, atherosclerosis and possibly neurological disorders.

Choline: critical role during fetal development and dietary requirements in adults.

Abstract: Choline is critical during fetal development, when it influences stem cell proliferation and apoptosis, thereby altering brain and spinal cord structure and function and influencing risk for neural tube defects and lifelong memory function.

The fetal origins of memory: the role of dietary choline in optimal brain development.

ABSTRACT: Fetal nutrition sets the stage for organ function in later life. Numerous research observations point to the importance of choline for the developing fetus and neonate. Perinatal supplementation of choline enhances memory and learning functions, changes that endure across the lifespan. Conversely, choline deficiency during these sensitive periods results in memory and cognitive deficits that also persist. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that perinatal choline supplementation can reduce the behavioral effects of prenatal stress and the cognitive effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring.

Perinatal choline effects on neonatal pathophysiology related to later schizophrenia risk.

Conclusion from Study: Neonatal developmental delay in inhibition is associated with attentional problems as the child matures. Perinatal cholineactivates timely development of cerebral inhibition, even in the presence of gene mutations that otherwise delay it.

Adequate choline in pregnancy may have cognitive benefits for offspring

While offspring in both groups showed cognitive benefits, information processing speeds were significantly faster for the group of expectant mothers who consumed 930 mg/day when compared with the group that took 480 mg/day over the same period.

Feeding a Mixture of Choline Forms to Lactating Dams Improves the Development of the Immune System

Abstract: Dietary choline is essential during lactation, but few studies have examined the implications of feeding a mixture of choline forms on immune function. In summary, feeding mixed choline diets during lactation improved T cell phenotype/function at the end of suckling and programmed a less inflammatory response later in life.


Prenatal choline intake increases grey and white matter in piglets

“In pigs from choline-deficient moms, their brains were about 10 percent smaller overall,” Mudd says. And 11 of the 19 regions were significantly smaller in choline-deficient brains.

When Mudd corrected for these volume differences to look specifically at grey and white matter concentration, the story was the same. Piglets whose mothers consumed sufficient choline during pregnancy had higher concentrations of grey and white matter in the brain’s cortical regions.

Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

Conclusion from Study: The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

Neuroprotective Actions of Dietary Choline.

Abstract: Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC)), the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models improves cognitive function in adulthood, prevents age-related memory decline, and protects the brain from the neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and neurological damage associated with epilepsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and inherited conditions such as Down and Rett syndromes.

Perinatal Choline Supplementation Reduces Amyloidosis and Increases Choline Acetyltransferase Expression in the Hippocampus of the APPswePS1dE9 Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice.

Abstract: In previous studies we showed that high intake of the essential nutrient, choline, during gestation prevented age-related memory decline in a rat model. The data suggest that dietary supplementation of choline during fetal development and early postnatal life may constitute a preventive strategy for AD.

Alternative therapy of Alzheimer's disease via supplementation with choline acetyltransferase.

Abstract: The recombination TAT-choline acetyltransferase fusion protein injected intravenously improves the memory and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease model mice induced by amyloid-beta peptide. Our results imply a novel and potentially effective way for Alzheimer's disease therapy.

Alzheimer's disease: choline acetyltransferase activity in brain tissue from clinical and pathological subgroups.

Abstract: Subjects with early-onset Alzheimer's disease had significantly lower choline acetyltransferase activity in substantia innominata than did control subjects. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and a history of myoclonus had significantly lower choline acetyltransferase activity than did affected patients without myoclonus. Multivariate regression analysis showed myoclonus to be the single best predictor of low brain choline acetyltransferase activity. These results provide further evidence for clinical, pathological, and biochemical heterogeneity in Alzheimer's disease.

A higher maternal choline intake among third-trimester pregnant women lowers placental and circulating concentrations of the antiangiogenic factor fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1).

Abstract: These findings indicate that supplementing the maternal diet with extra choline may improve placental angiogenesis and mitigate some of the pathological antecedents of preeclampsia.

Maternal choline intake alters the epigenetic state of fetal cortisol-regulating genes in humans.

Abstract: These data collectively suggest that maternal choline intake in humans modulates the epigenetic state of genes that regulate fetal HPA axis reactivity as well as the epigenomic status of fetal derived tissues.

Choline - Advances in Nutrition

During pregnancy, women in the lowest quartile of dietary choline intake had a higher risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect (NTD)3 or cleft palate.

Choline in Down Syndrome and Early Intervention

A recent study in a mouse model of Down Syndrome reported improvements in cognitive function and emotion regulation in mice born to mothers supplemented with choline during the perinatal period (41).

Alzheimer’s Patients Benefit from Choline

Also invisible, but pernicious in its consequences, is a marked reduction, in certain regions of the brain, in cholinergic function—brain activity that depends on the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is vitally important for memory formation and retention. This is another hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease, and it represents the most attractive target for medicinal therapy.

Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline

The mean decrease in ADAS-Cog score in patients treated with CA was 2.42 points after 90 days of treatment and 3.20 points at the end of the study (day 180) (P < 0.001 vs baseline for both), whereas in patients receiving placebo the mean increase in ADAS-Cog score was 0.36 point <1 after 90 days of treatment.

Choline transporter gene variation is associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

ABSTRACT: The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) plays a critical role in brain circuits mediating motor control, attention, learning and memory. Cholinergic dysfunction is associated with multiple brain disorders including Alzheimer’s Disease, addiction, schizophrenia and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Effect of Choline Supplementation on Rapid Weight Loss and Biochemical Variables Among Female Taekwondo and Judo Athletes

The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed that body mass was reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

High intakes of choline and betaine reduce breast cancer mortality in a population-based study

ABSTRACT: Our study supports the important roles of choline and betaine in breast carcinogenesis. It suggests that high intake of these nutrients may be a promising strategy to prevent the development of breast cancer and to reduce its mortality.

American Medical Association supports more choline in prenatal regimen

Choline is necessary for baby's brain and spinal cord development.

Perinatal choline supplementation as a treatment for autism

The results of Mellott’s study suggest that the availability of choline during early development can prevent or reduce deficits in social behavior and anxiety in a genetic mouse model of autism. This may lead to a novel strategy for the treatment or prevention of autism spectrum disorders.

Children with ADHD have 50% less Acetycholine

A new study at Örebro University in Sweden shows that children with ADHD have nearly 50 percent less of a protein that is important for attention and learning. The finding may mean that there are other biochemical disturbances in the brains of individuals with ADHD than was previously believed.

Choline Deficiency Causes Colonic Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Loss and Alleviates Murine Colitis under Type I NKT Cell Deficiency

Serum levels of choline and its derivatives are lower in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in healthy individuals

Exercise-induced muscle damage in healthy men with low choline intake

Men susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage are more likely to have low choline intake than men with more resilient muscles.

Is Choline Deficiency Killing Your Performance?

Choline, sometimes referred to as vitamin B4, plays a major role in supporting focus, building strength and power, and accelerating recovery. Unfortunately, if you’re over nineteen years old, the research shows there is a greater than ninety percent chance you’re not getting enough of this key nutrient


Choline: Why You Should Eat Your Egg Yolks

A study showed that, deprived of dietary choline, 77 percent of men and 80 percent of postmenopausal women suffered either fatty liver or muscle damage, even when taking the currently recommended adequate Intake (indicating that amount is insufficient), but when getting enough choline, the symptoms disappeared.

A study on the severity of 664 people with non-alcoholic liver disease showed that decreased choline intake significantly increased their symptoms, including fibrosis, the thickening and scarring of connective tissue.

Nutrition and Traumatic Brain Injury: Improving Acute and Subacute Health Outcomes in Military Personnel.

Health outcomes associated with choline involve memory, heart disease, and inflammation, which also explain the consideration of choline as a plausible intervention in traumatic brain injury (TBI).